In Italy the presence of music as an educational subject in compulsory schooling is still very limited. And, where it is present, the “music education” often consists of practical lessons, where the pupils try to play a “didactic” instrument, like a recorder made of plastic, or rudimentary electronic keyboards. This is the result of a limited view of the potential role of music in the formation of an individual. The most important, and often neglected, aspect is education for listening, where listening means not just the ability to a distinguish a piano from a forte or a rising scale from a falling one, but the aptitude to develop the individual's concentration and sensitivity, to perceive and understand the stimuli we receive from others. Put briefly, listening education should translate into learning to recognize our state of mind, which music will help us to find. And, as a consequence, this can enhance the students' aptitude to “look inside themselves”, to become aware of their own emotional reactions, and, thus, to know how to communicate them better to others. A greater awareness of our states of mind can help us to recognize the states of mind of our interlocutors, and so, as we said, learn how to “listen” to them. The aptitude to listen will promote understanding, sharing, compassion: all indispensable tools to guide man towards a coexistence that is not just civil, but above all rich, marked by harmony and respect for others. This is why it is hoped that music education will be reconsidered in this direction, and will become increasingly present in all phases of schooling, right from the kindergarten.